After sending the Molly Maguires to the scaffold in 1877, Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency plunged headlong into America’s labor conflict. At the vanguard of its war on organized labor was the Protective Patrol, an armed force that deployed to over seventy major strikes. Was the Patrol a lawkeeping elite, as the Agency and its employers claimed? Or, as labor leaders and reformers argued, was it a gang of cold-blooded, mercenary killers? After a disastrous intervention in 1892, testimony in a dramatic Congressional hearing revealed that both sides might have been wrong all along…
Inward Empire music by Stephen Spencer.
Arthur G. Burgyone, The Homestead Strike of 1892 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1979; originally published 1893)
Morris Friedman, The Pinkerton Labor Spy (New York: Wilshire Book Co, 1907)
Paul Krause, The Battle for Homestead 1880-1892: Politics, Culture, and Steel (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992)
Frank Morn, The Eye That Never Sleeps: A History of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982)
S. Paul O’Hara, Inventing the Pinkertons, or, Spies, Sleuths, Mercenaries, and Thugs (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2016)
Allan Pinkerton, Strikers, Communists, Tramps, and Detectives (New York: G.W. Carleton, 1878)
Pinkerton Consulting and Investigations, Inc. “History of the Pinkerton Detective Agency”. https://www.pinkerton.com/about-us/history (retrieved May 2, 2017).
Charles Siringo, A Cowboy Detective: A True Story of Twenty-Two Years with a World-Famous Detective Agency (Chicago: W.B. Conkey Co, 1912)
Charles Siringo, Two Evil Isms: Pinkertonism and Anarchism (Chicago: C.A. Siringo, 1915)
Robert Michael Smith, From Blackjacks to Briefcases: A History of Commercialized Strikebreaking and Unionbusting in the United States (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2003)
United States House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary. Investigation of the Employment of Pinkerton Detectives in Connection with the Labor Troubles at Homestead, PA. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1892)
United States Senate, Select Committee on the Employment for Private Purposes of Armed Bodies of Men, Investigation of Labor Troubles. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1893)